Friday, 27 March 2009
Thursday, 26 March 2009
Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194). Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child's chances of survival. The central theme of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infant's needs establish a sense of security. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world.
Characteristics of Attachment:
Safe Haven: When the child feel threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing.
Secure Base: The caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world.
Proximity Maintenance: The child strives to stay near the caregiver, thus keeping the child safe.
Separation Distress: When separated from the caregiver, the child will become upset and distressed.
Ainsworth's "Strange Situation"
In her 1970's research, psychologist Mary Ainsworth expanded greatly upon Bowlby's original work. Her groundbreaking "Strange Situation" study revealed the profound effects of attachment on behavior. In the study, researchers observed children between the ages of 12 and 18 months as they responded to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mothers (Ainsworth, 1978). Based upon the responses the researchers observed, Ainsworth described three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. Later, researchers Main and Solomon (1986) added a fourth attachment style called disorganized-insecure attachment based upon their own research. A number of studies since that time have supported Ainsworth’s attachment styles and have indicated that attachment styles also have an impact on behaviors later in life.
Characteristics of Attachment:
Characteristics of Secure Attachment
Securely attached children exhibit minimal distress when separated from caregivers. Remember, these children feel secure and able to depend on their adult caregivers. When the adult leaves, the child feels assured that the parent or caregiver will return.
When frightened, securely attached children will seek comfort from caregivers. These children know their parent or caregiver will provide comfort and reassurance, so they are comfortable seeking them out in times of need.Characteristics of Ambivalent Attachment
Ambivalently attached children usually become very distressed when a parent leaves. This attachment style is considered relatively uncommon, affecting an estimated 7-15% of U.S. children. Research suggests that ambivalent attachment is a result of poor maternal availability. These children cannot depend on their mother (or caregiver) to be there when the child is in need.Characteristics of Avoidant Attachment
Children with an avoidant attachment tend to avoid parents or caregivers. When offered a choice, these children will show no preference between a caregiver and a complete stranger. Research has suggested that this attachment style might be a result of abusive or neglectful caregivers. Children who are punished for relying on a caregiver will learn to avoid seeking help in the future.
Problems with Attachment:
What happens to children who do not form secure attachments? Research suggests that failure to form secure attachments early in life can have a negative impact on behavior in later childhood and throughout the life. Children diagnosed with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently display attachment problems, possibly due to early abuse, neglect, or trauma. Clinicians suggest that children adopted after the age of six months have a higher risk of problems with attachment. While attachment styles displayed in adulthood are not necessarily the same as those seen in infancy, research suggests that early attachments can have a serious impact on later relationships. For example, those who are securely attached in childhood tend to have good self-esteem, strong romantic relationships, and the ability to self-disclose to others. For more information, see this articles on attachment styles.
information cited from: Attachment Theory: An Overview of Attachment Theory
By Kendra Van Wagner, About.com http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
I always believed that I am who I am, I can't change how I look, I can't change my skin colour, I can't change where I was born or who my parents are, so why I should see myself different then other people. When I talked about my language barrier with my English, I was talking about the fact and not feel shame or feel that I am lower then anybody. However with people who hasn't got the strong self-awareness or self-concept, self-esteem, they always see or think other people treat them differently because of their colours or religions.
And most of all, I got HOMESICK, even though I got no problem living in England because here is my home now, my husband, my daughters are here but I still miss my other families, my dad, my brother, my uncle.... a lot. I miss the food as well, once you lived in Taiwan and experience the food and culture, you will miss it forever!!
Wednesday, 18 March 2009
We had meeting with tutor from Warwick university today, it wasn't too bad but we didn't get the information that we hope to get such as the list of optional module and advise on what we should chose. We will have to wait until eastern to find out! I am prepared for the work to come when we go to Warwick and can't wait to go and quite nervous/exciting about different setting and teaching.
It will be very sad to say goodbye to our tutors in college, we are naturing by them, I am planning to come back to see them anyway so it shouldn't feel too bad after we leave.
Sunday, 15 March 2009
I feel that I should give up my GCSE English to save my degree course, as carer of three children with most of needs and mother of two children, I can't keep up to attend my night time course.
Everything is going so wrong at the moment, I wish the course of this year finish soon and I can restart my life and my study.